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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:85353188.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械手(shou)由主体、驱动(dong)系统(tong)和控(kong)制系统(tong)三个(ge)基(ji)本(ben)部(bu)分(fen)组成。按(an)机(ji)器(qi)人结构分(fen)类为直(zhi)角坐标型(xing),机(ji)械手(shou)沿(yan)二维(wei)直(zhi)角坐标系移(yi)动(dong)。主体部(bu)分(fen)通(tong)(tong)常采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)龙门式(shi)结构,由y向(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)(liang)与(yu)导轨、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)、十字(zi)滑(hua)(hua)座、立柱、过(guo)渡连(lian)接(jie)板和基(ji)座等(deng)部(bu)分(fen)组成,z向(xiang)(xiang)的(de)(de)直(zhi)线运(yun)动(dong)皆为交(jiao)流伺服(fu)电动(dong)机(ji)通(tong)(tong)过(guo)蜗轮(lun)减(jian)速(su)器(qi)驱动(dong)齿轮(lun)与(yu)y向(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)(liang)、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)上固定的(de)(de)齿条作滚动(dong),驱动(dong)移(yi)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)(jian)沿(yan)导轨快速(su)运(yun)动(dong)。移(yi)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)(jian)为质(zhi)量(liang)较轻的(de)(de)十字(zi)滑(hua)(hua)座和z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)(hua)枕(zhen)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)由铝合金拉(la)制的(de)(de)型(xing)材。横(heng)梁(liang)(liang)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)方(fang)钢型(xing)材,在(zai)横(heng)梁(liang)(liang)上安装有导轨和齿条,通(tong)(tong)过(guo)滚轮(lun)与(yu)导轨接(jie)触,整(zheng)个(ge)机(ji)械手(shou)都悬挂在(zai)其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)速度快(kuai),加速度大,加减速时(shi)(shi)(shi)间短(duan)。当输(shu)(shu)送(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)时(shi)(shi)(shi),惯量(liang)(liang)大,因此,伺服驱动(dong)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)要有足够的(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)和制动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑元(yuan)(yuan)件(jian)也要有足够的(de)(de)(de)刚(gang)(gang)度及(ji)强(qiang)度。只有这样,才能(neng)使(shi)伺服电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)满足桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响(xiang)应、高(gao)刚(gang)(gang)度及(ji)高(gao)精度要求。在(zai)选(xuan)择合适伺服电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)物料运(yun)(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距离(li)和运(yun)(yun)行(xing)节拍,计(ji)算出伺服系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)和轨(gui)迹,对驱动(dong)器(qi)PID参数进行(xing)动(dong)态调整(zheng)(zheng)。桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)接收到的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)、速度指令,经变化、放大并(bing)调整(zheng)(zheng)处理后,传(chuan)递(di)给运(yun)(yun)动(dong)单元(yuan)(yuan),通(tong)过(guo)光纤传(chuan)感(gan)器(qi)对运(yun)(yun)行(xing)状态进行(xing)实(shi)时(shi)(shi)(shi)检测,在(zai)高(gao)速搬运(yun)(yun)过(guo)程(cheng)中,运(yun)(yun)动(dong)部件(jian)在(zai)极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)(shi)(shi)间内到达(da)给定的(de)(de)(de)速度,并(bing)能(neng)在(zai)高(gao)速行(xing)程(cheng)中瞬(shun)间准停,通(tong)过(guo)高(gao)分辩率绝对式编(bian)码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)插补(bu)运(yun)(yun)算,控制机(ji)(ji)(ji)械误差(cha)和测量(liang)(liang)误差(cha)对运(yun)(yun)动(dong)精度的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。由于被(bei)(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)不(bu)同,质量(liang)(liang)也不(bu)同,因此,桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手有多种(zhong)规格和系(xi)列。在(zai)选(xuan)择时(shi)(shi)(shi),根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)被(bei)(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)质量(liang)(liang),加工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)节拍来选(xuan)取。但机(ji)(ji)(ji)械手的(de)(de)(de)手臂,夹(jia)持方式,则根(gen)(gen)据(ju)(ju)被(bei)(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)形状、结构(gou)及(ji)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方式来设计(ji)(见(jian)图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)能够借(jie)助(zhu)可(ke)(ke)编程序来处理和执行任务。机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)主要由手(shou)(shou)图(tu) 1 臂、回转装置、运动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)及(ji)驱动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)组成(cheng)(cheng)。通过对工(gong)件(jian)外形或工(gong)件(jian)上定(ding)位(wei)支(zhi)撑点(dian)定(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)件(jian)。例如,在汽车发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)加(jia)工(gong)柔性(xing)自动(dong)线物流(liu)输送中(zhong),桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)会根据缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖、曲(qu)轴等(deng)工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)外形特点(dian),选取不同的(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式。柔性(xing)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上采用气缸(gang)和电机(ji)(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)的(de)(de)切(qie)(qie)换(huan)驱动(dong),一套(tao)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)可(ke)(ke)完成(cheng)(cheng)不同品(pin)(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)可(ke)(ke)根据产品(pin)(pin)质量和外形的(de)(de)大小采用系列化设计,机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)安装方式相同,针对不同系列的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只需切(qie)(qie)换(huan)相应的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)即可(ke)(ke),满足快速切(qie)(qie)换(huan)的(de)(de)需要。这样(yang),当加(jia)工(gong)不同品(pin)(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只须变(bian)换(huan)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)就可(ke)(ke)实现,提高了桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)柔性(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动(dong)线桁(heng)架机械手输送装置的(de)发展及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan),经历了刚(gang)(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代(dai)。就(jiu)目(mu)前(qian)而言, 在国内二者均有之。刚(gang)(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)棘(ji)轮棘(ji)爪(zhua)、摆杆、抬(tai)起步(bu)伐(fa)、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)式。随(sui)着(zhe)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan),由(you)(you)其组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代(dai)组(zu)(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以(yi)(yi)(yi)适应(ying)小批量多(duo)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke)(ke),并称(cheng)(cheng)其为(wei)(wei)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)(zhei)种以(yi)(yi)(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)装(zhuang)置或输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)带(dai)依然为(wei)(wei)刚(gang)(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)(ke)谓是(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)有了飞跃(yue),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)形(xing)式以(yi)(yi)(yi)刚(gang)(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou))并存,或纯(chun)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)全部(bu)由(you)(you)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成,这(zhei)(zhei)是(shi)(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如(ru)主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心配以(yi)(yi)(yi)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song),又(you)称(cheng)(cheng)之为(wei)(wei)敏(min)(min)捷柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏(min)(min)捷制造系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成部(bu)分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)步(bu)距可(ke)(ke)根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置随(sui)意改(gai)变,自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)位置不(bu)再象刚(gang)(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)那(nei)样,按(an)照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)步(bu)距或步(bu)距倍(bei)数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)求进行严格(ge)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)速度也(ye)可(ke)(ke)根据生(sheng)(sheng)产节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离(li)而改(gai)变。而真正体现(xian)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)一面是(shi)(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品改(gai)变后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)不(bu)会不(bu)适应(ying)而全部(bu)更换,只(zhi)要(yao)(yao)改(gai)变输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)程(cheng)序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)局部(bu)结构即可(ke)(ke)。采用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)更先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一面是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整(zheng)体的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)一。因(yin)此,桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)才在当今柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上越来越多(duo)地(di)被采用(yong),使整(zheng)个生(sheng)(sheng)产过程(cheng)通过信(xin)(xin)息流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)进行控(kong)制。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong),所需各种信(xin)(xin)息收集、处(chu)理、反馈,并通过电子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或其他控(kong)制装(zhuang)置(液压(ya)、气压(ya)装(zhuang)置等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)或运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行分(fen)级控(kong)制。信(xin)(xin)息流系(xi)(xi)统(tong)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)由(you)(you)中(zhong)(zhong)央管(guan)理计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)制计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元控(kong)制计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)(yi)(yi)及(ji)信(xin)(xin)息传(chuan)送(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)(zu)成。目(mu)前(qian),汽车制造业(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖及(ji)曲(qu)轴等大(da)批量关键(jian)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)都采用(yong)了桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(见(jian)图3)。

2. 国内外的差(cha)距

当下,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)机(ji)床的(de)发展很快,技术水(shui)(shui)平(ping)有(you)了(le)很大(da)的(de)提(ti)(ti)高,与国(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)的(de)差(cha)(cha)(cha)距变得越来(lai)越小,甚至有(you)些机(ji)床与国(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)相比已经没有(you)什么差(cha)(cha)(cha)距。特(te)别是(shi)国(guo)家重(zhong)大(da)科技专(zhuan)项(xiang)的(de)开展,为我(wo)(wo)国(guo)机(ji)床上档次(ci)上水(shui)(shui)平(ping)提(ti)(ti)高了(le)加(jia)(jia)速度,成(cheng)绩显而易见。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)床这几年(nian)发展的(de)特(te)别快,但柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)技术水(shui)(shui)平(ping)和(he)档次(ci),较(jiao)国(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)的(de)差(cha)(cha)(cha)距还(hai)很明显,国(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)采用(yong)(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送(song)(song)的(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)较(jiao)为普遍,而国(guo)内却为数不多,国(guo)内庞大(da)的(de)汽车(che)生产市场所(suo)采用(yong)(yong)的(de)带桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送(song)(song)的(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)多从(cong)国(guo)外(wai)(wai)(wai)进口。如(ru)无锡(xi)柴(chai)油发动(dong)机(ji)厂的(de)缸(gang)(gang)体缸(gang)(gang)盖柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)由(you)德国(guo)GROB公司总承包,由(you)BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)、拧紧机(ji)、试漏(lou)机(ji)、压装机(ji)在线(xian)(xian)检(jian)具、辅(fu)机(ji)及珩磨(mo)机(ji)组成(cheng)。输送(song)(song)采用(yong)(yong)空(kong)中桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)和(he)机(ji)动(dong)滚道自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)输送(song)(song)。仅以汽车(che)制造业而言,国(guo)内生产的(de)柔性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),采用(yong)(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送(song)(song)的(de)屈指可数。大(da)连机(ji)床集团和(he)沈阳机(ji)床集团等(deng)生产出了(le)该方面的(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在生产实际中得到了(le)应用(yong)(yong)。图4是(shi)大(da)连机(ji)床集团生产的(de)DKX017缸(gang)(gang)体加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两(liang)种缸(gang)(gang)体,分别为四缸(gang)(gang)和(he)六缸(gang)(gang),其输送(song)(song)采用(yong)(yong)空(kong)中桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)和(he)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)两(liang)端为机(ji)动(dong)滚道等(deng)形式。桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)两(liang)个,一(yi)个上料,一(yi)个下料。它的(de)成(cheng)功,标志着我(wo)(wo)国(guo)国(guo)产由(you)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送(song)(song)的(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)际水(shui)(shui)准迈进。

上(shang)述提(ti)及的(de)只是(shi)(shi)数量上(shang)的(de)比(bi)较,其实真正的(de)原(yuan)因还是(shi)(shi)国(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)技(ji)术水(shui)平与(yu)国(guo)外(wai)有(you)着一(yi)(yi)定的(de)差距(ju)。柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自动(dong)(dong)(dong)线采(cai)用(yong)的(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou),也是(shi)(shi)从国(guo)外(wai)进口的(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)。那时,国(guo)内还没有(you)专(zhuan)门生产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)厂(chang)(chang)家。如(ru)今(jin),国(guo)内巨一(yi)(yi)等(deng)一(yi)(yi)些桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)生产(chan)厂(chang)(chang)家的(de)涌出,为国(guo)产(chan)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自动(dong)(dong)(dong)线带(dai)来(lai)了希望(wang),进而缩(suo)小了与(yu)国(guo)外(wai)在(zai)生产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)方面(mian)的(de)差距(ju),国(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)在(zai)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自动(dong)(dong)(dong)线的(de)应用(yong)也越来(lai)越多(duo),从而打破国(guo)产(chan)市场被外(wai)国(guo)人的(de)垄(long)断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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