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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:85353188.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用(yong)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)吗?——加工(gong)工(gong)件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心类(lei)型的(de)选(xuan)定需(xu)要(yao)考虑(lv)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和(he)设(she)备价(jia)格等(deng)(deng)因素(su),根(gen)据所选(xuan)零件(jian)族 (组)进行(xing)。如果您的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)具有以(yi)下特征,则应选(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心:加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面以(yi)上的(de)零件(jian)或(huo)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周呈径(jing)向辐射状排列的(de)孔系、面,如箱体(ti)类(lei)、壳体(ti)类(lei)零件(jian)等(deng)(deng),应选(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心;被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)的(de)位置精度要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)较高,宜选(xuan)用高精密卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心;零件(jian)在一(yi)次(ci)装夹(jia)中需(xu)要(yao)完成多面加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)择(ze)立卧(wo)复(fu)合式五面加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心。当然,上述各点也(ye)不(bu)是绝(jue)对的(de),一(yi)方面是由(you)于加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心正朝着(zhe)复(fu)合化方向发展,另一(yi)方面选(xuan)型时要(yao)综(zong)合考虑(lv)生产效率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)和(he)设(she)备资金等(deng)(deng)因素(su),要(yao)以(yi)性价(jia)比来衡量选(xuan)型方案(an)的(de)合理性。

建议:采购用户需要根据加(jia)工(gong)对(dui)象、加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)工(gong)范围等特征(zheng)来确定是否使用卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心以(yi)及(ji)使用什么样(yang)的卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺寸(cun)

这是卧式加工中心的(de)主参数,主要取决于典(dian)型零件的(de)外(wai)(wai)廓(kuo)尺(chi)(chi)(chi)寸、装夹方式等。应选择比典(dian)型零件外(wai)(wai)廓(kuo)尺(chi)(chi)(chi)寸稍大一些的(de)工作台(tai),以便(bian)留出安装夹具所(suo)需的(de)空间,保证零件在其上(shang)面能够顺利装夹,此外(wai)(wai)还应考虑工作台(tai)的(de)承载能力、T形槽数量和尺(chi)(chi)(chi)寸等,小(xiao)尺(chi)(chi)(chi)寸的(de)比较(jiao)通用,比如站内的(de)卧式加工中心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等。

建议:目前市(shi)场(chang)上的卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心工作台尺寸多(duo)为1000以下(xia)的,能够满足大(da)多(duo)数(shu)用(yong)户的需求(qiu)。

(2)坐标轴行程

最(zui)基(ji)本的(de)(de)(de)(de)坐标轴(zhou)是X、Y、Z三(san)轴(zhou),其行(xing)程(cheng)和工作台(tai)(tai)尺寸(cun)有相应的(de)(de)(de)(de)比(bi)例关系,工作台(tai)(tai)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)基(ji)本上确定了加(jia)(jia)工空间的(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)。如(ru)个别(bie)零(ling)(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)尺寸(cun)大(da)于(yu)(yu)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心行(xing)程(cheng)时,则必须要(yao)求(qiu)零(ling)(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工区域处于(yu)(yu)机床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)行(xing)程(cheng)范围之内,此外还要(yao)考虑(lv)零(ling)(ling)件是否与机床(chuang)(chuang)交(jiao)换刀具的(de)(de)(de)(de)空间干涉、与机床(chuang)(chuang)防护罩(zhao)等(deng)附件发生干涉等(deng)系列(lie)问题。而对需要(yao)多轴(zhou)联动(dong)加(jia)(jia)工的(de)(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心 (如(ru)增加(jia)(jia)回转坐标A、B、C或附加(jia)(jia)坐标U、V、W),如(ru)四轴(zhou)、五轴(zhou)联动(dong)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心,这就需要(yao)特殊(shu)订货,同时必须对相应配(pei)套的(de)(de)(de)(de)编程(cheng)软件、测量手段以及机床(chuang)(chuang)价格等(deng)有全面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)考虑(lv)和安排。

建议:采购用户需要根据加工工件(jian)规格选择不(bu)同(tong)坐标(biao)轴(zhou)行程的(de)卧式加工中(zhong)心,多轴(zhou)联动需要特殊定制。

(3)主轴(zhou)电动机功(gong)率与转矩

它反映(ying)了卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)切削效率,也从一个侧(ce)面反映(ying)了卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)切削刚性和(he)机床(chuang)整体刚度。主轴电动机功率在同(tong)类规格的(de)(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上可(ke)以有各种不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)配置,同(tong)类规格的(de)(de)主轴转速(su)不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin),主轴电动机功率可(ke)以相差很大。

建议:采购(gou)用户应根据自(zi)身典型零件(jian)毛坯余(yu)量大小、切削能力 (单位(wei)时(shi)间金属切削量)、要求(qiu)达到(dao)的加工精度(du)、实际能配置(zhi)的刀具等因(yin)素综合选择。

(4)主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速与进给速度(du)

需要(yao)高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)或超低速(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)时(shi),应(ying)关(guan)注主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)的转(zhuan)速(su)(su)范围(wei)。特(te)别是高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)时(shi),既(ji)要(yao)有高(gao)(gao)的主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su),同时(shi)也(ye)要(yao)具备与主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)相匹(pi)配的进给速(su)(su)度(du)。目前卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)心高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)化趋(qu)势发展(zhan)很快,主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)从每(mei)分钟几(ji)千转(zhuan)到(dao)几(ji)万转(zhuan),直线(xian)坐标(biao)快速(su)(su)移(yi)动(dong)速(su)(su)度(du)从10—20/min上升(sheng)到(dao)80m/min以上,当然(ran)其(qi)功(gong)能部(bu)件如电主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)、直线(xian)电动(dong)机(ji)、直线(xian)滚动(dong)导轨、主(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承等及相配套的光栅尺(chi)、刀具等附件价(jia)格也(ye)都(dou)相应(ying)上升(sheng),甚(shen)至很昂贵。

建(jian)议:采(cai)购用户必须根据(ju)自(zi)身(shen)的技术能力(li)和(he)配(pei)套能力(li)合(he)理作出(chu)卧式(shi)加工中心(xin)的合(he)理选型(xing)。

(5)刀库容量

可以根据(ju)被加(jia)工(gong)零(ling)件的(de)工(gong)艺分析结果来确定(ding)所需数(shu)量(liang),通常以典型零(ling)件在(zai)一次装夹中(zhong)所需刀(dao)具(ju)数(shu)量(liang)来确定(ding)刀(dao)库的(de)容(rong)量(liang),卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心以选用(yong)(yong)40把刀(dao)左右的(de)刀(dao)库为(wei)宜。同(tong)时要(yao)关注最(zui)大(da)刀(dao)具(ju)直(zhi)径(jing)与长度(du)以及最(zui)大(da)刀(dao)具(ju)重量(liang)等。用(yong)(yong)于FMC或FMS的(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心,应选择大(da)容(rong)量(liang)刀(dao)库,甚(shen)至配置可交换(huan)刀(dao)库。

建议:普通卧式加工中心选择(ze)(ze)40把刀(dao)左右的(de)刀(dao)库即(ji)够用(yong),用(yong)于FMC或(huo)FMS的(de)卧式加工中心应选择(ze)(ze)大容(rong)量刀(dao)库。

3我需要选(xuan)用什么精(jing)度(du)的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心?——精(jing)度(du)的(de)选(xuan)定

加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)等(deng)级主(zhu)要(yao)根据典型零件关键部位(wei)的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)来(lai)确(que)定(ding)。其精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)主(zhu)要(yao)包括(kuo)定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)、重复定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)和铣(xian)圆精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du),特别是重复定(ding)位(wei)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du),它反映了坐标(biao)轴(zhou)的(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)稳(wen)定(ding)性(xing),是衡量该轴(zhou)是否稳(wen)定(ding)可靠工作的(de)(de)基本(ben)指标(biao)。特别值(zhi)得注意的(de)(de)是,选型订货(huo)时必须(xu)全面分析(xi),不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)能简单地看产品样(yang)本(ben)所列的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)(du)数(shu)值(zhi),因为标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)、规(gui)定(ding)数(shu)值(zhi)不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)、检(jian)(jian)测方法不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong),数(shu)值(zhi)的(de)(de)含义就不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)。刊物、样(yang)本(ben)、合格证所列出的(de)(de)单位(wei)长度(du)(du)(du)(du)上(shang)允(yun)许的(de)(de)正负(fu)值(zhi)(一(yi)般为正负(fu)0.05)常常是不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)明确(que)的(de)(de),订货(huo)时要(yao)特别注意,一(yi)定(ding)要(yao)弄清是IOS(国(guo)(guo)际标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)化(hua)组织标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)(guo)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)(guo)机床制造商协会标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))还是NAS(美国(guo)(guo)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))等(deng),进而分析(xi)各(ge)种不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)标(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)所规(gui)定(ding)的(de)(de)检(jian)(jian)测计(ji)算(suan)方法和检(jian)(jian)测环境条件,才不(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)(bu)会产生(sheng)误(wu)解(jie)。

铣圆精(jing)度(du)是综合评(ping)价卧式加工中心有(you)关数控轴(zhou)的伺服跟(gen)随运(yun)动(dong)特性和数控系统插补功能(neng)的主要(yao)(yao)指标之一。不论典型零(ling)件是否有(you)此需(xu)(xu)要(yao)(yao),为了将来(lai)可能(neng)的需(xu)(xu)要(yao)(yao)及更好地控制精(jing)度(du),必须重视(shi)这一指标。

要特别注意区别加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度与机床(chuang)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度两个不同的(de)(de)(de)概念(nian)。将(jiang)生产(chan)(chan)厂家样(yang)本(ben)上或(huo)产(chan)(chan)品合(he)格证上的(de)(de)(de)位置(zhi)(zhi)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度当作卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度是(shi)错误(wu)的(de)(de)(de)。样(yang)本(ben)或(huo)合(he)格证上标明的(de)(de)(de)位置(zhi)(zhi)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度是(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)身的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度,而(er)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度是(shi)包括(kuo)卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)身所允许误(wu)差(cha)在内的(de)(de)(de)整(zheng)个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)统(tong)各种因素所产(chan)(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)误(wu)差(cha)总和。整(zheng)个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)统(tong)误(wu)差(cha)产(chan)(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)原因是(shi)很(hen)复杂(za)的(de)(de)(de),很(hen)难(nan)用(yong)线性关系(xi)定量表达。选(xuan)型时,可参考工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序能力(li)系(xi)数Cp的(de)(de)(de)评定方法来作为(wei)机床(chuang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)型依据。一般而(er)言,Cp应大于1.33。

站内高(gao)精(jing)密的几款卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin):MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱(zhu)式卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin)性(xing)能都(dou)不错。

建议:采购用(yong)户在挑选(xuan)不同精(jing)度的卧式加(jia)工中心(xin)时,需要考虑:不同标准对应(ying)的单位长度含义;重视铣圆精(jing)度指标;区别加(jia)工精(jing)度和(he)机床精(jing)度。

4我应该选择哪种数控(kong)系统(tong)?——数控(kong)系统(tong)的选定

数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)分(fen)为(wei)基本功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)与选择(ze)(ze)(ze)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng),可(ke)以从操作(zuo)方(fang)式(shi)(shi)、用(yong)户功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)、控制方(fang)式(shi)(shi)、驱动形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、反馈(kui)形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、接口形(xing)式(shi)(shi)、检测与测量(liang)、报警(jing)与提示、故障诊断(duan)等方(fang)面(mian)综合衡量(liang)。基本功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)是必须提供(gong)的(de)(de),而只有当用(yong)户选择(ze)(ze)(ze)了(le)选择(ze)(ze)(ze)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂(chang)家才会另行提供(gong)并另行加价(jia)(jia),且定价(jia)(jia)一(yi)般较高。总(zong)体(ti)而言,数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)一(yi)定要(yao)根据加工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)需(xu)要(yao)来选择(ze)(ze)(ze),订购(gou)时(shi)(shi)既要(yao)把需(xu)要(yao)的(de)(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)订全(quan),不能(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时(shi)(shi)避免(mian)使用(yong)率不高而造成浪费(fei),还需(xu)注意各功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)之间的(de)(de)关联性(xing)。另一(yi)方(fang)面(mian),在可(ke)供(gong)选择(ze)(ze)(ze)的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)中,如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、国产(chan)华中数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)等,性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)高低差别很大,价(jia)(jia)格(ge)(ge)亦相差很大,进口系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)或国产(chan)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)亦决定其价(jia)(jia)格(ge)(ge)的(de)(de)高低。总(zong)体(ti)上来看,法兰(lan)克系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)性(xing)价(jia)(jia)比比较高,国内卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)使用(yong)比例比较高。站内卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)使用(yong)法兰(lan)克数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)也比较多,比如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都(dou)是比较好(hao)的(de)(de)选择(ze)(ze)(ze)。多台卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)选型(xing)时(shi)(shi),应尽可(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)选用(yong)同一(yi)厂(chang)家的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong),这样操作(zuo)、编程、维修都(dou)比较方(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需(xu)要选择几台卧式加工中心能达到的我的产(chan)(chan)量要求(qiu)?——生产(chan)(chan)能力的估算

选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)(xing)(xing)时(shi)(shi),必须要(yao)考虑卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)能达(da)到的(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)能力(li),即(ji)要(yao)求选(xuan)(xuan)定的(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)在(zai)一(yi)(yi)年(nian)之内(nei)能加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几(ji)种典(dian)(dian)型(xing)(xing)(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)多少数(shu)量的(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)。要(yao)得到这(zhei)些数(shu)据(ju)(ju)必须对每一(yi)(yi)种确定的(de)(de)典(dian)(dian)型(xing)(xing)(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)进行(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)(shi)和生(sheng)产(chan)节拍(pai)的(de)(de)估(gu)算(suan)。一(yi)(yi)般步骤为:首先,根(gen)据(ju)(ju)已(yi)选(xuan)(xuan)定的(de)(de)典(dian)(dian)型(xing)(xing)(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)进行(xing)(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析,初步确定一(yi)(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线(xian),在(zai)这(zhei)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线(xian)中(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)出(chu)准备在(zai)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第二(er),根(gen)据(ju)(ju)现用的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu),估(gu)算(suan)出(chu)每道在(zai)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)单(dan)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)(shi)间;第三,由(you)每个(ge)单(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)(shi)间计算(suan)出(chu)选(xuan)(xuan)定零(ling)件(jian)(jian)在(zai)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)总时(shi)(shi)间,进而计算(suan)出(chu)年(nian)产(chan)量即(ji)生(sheng)产(chan)能力(li)。如果(guo)估(gu)算(suan)结(jie)果(guo)达(da)不到目标值,但相差不大(da),则可以(yi)通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu)的(de)(de)方法加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以(yi)调整;如果(guo)相差很大(da),则应考虑增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)台数(shu)的(de)(de)配置。

建(jian)议:采购用户需要(yao)根据工件加工工时和(he)生产节拍的(de)估算,决定(ding)卧式加工中(zhong)心配备台(tai)数(shu)。

6卧式加(jia)工中心有好多选(xuan)(xuan)配(pei)的(de)附(fu)件我应(ying)该如何选(xuan)(xuan)配(pei)?——其(qi)他(ta)功能部件及附(fu)件的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定

(1)坐标轴数(shu)和联动轴数(shu)

坐(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou)数(shu)和联动(dong)轴(zhou)数(shu)均应满(man)足典型零件(jian)加(jia)工要(yao)(yao)(yao)求。一(yi)般情(qing)况下(xia),同厂家、同规格、同等精(jing)度(du)的卧式加(jia)工中心(xin),增加(jia)一(yi)个标(biao)准坐(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou),价格约增加(jia)30%—50%。尽管增加(jia)坐(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou)数(shu)可以强(qiang)化加(jia)工中心(xin)的功能(neng),是机床上档次的标(biao)志之(zhi)一(yi),但最终(zhong)还是要(yao)(yao)(yao)在工艺要(yao)(yao)(yao)求和资(zi)金条件(jian)下(xia)平衡决(jue)定。

(2)工作台

卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心可配置用于分度的(de)回(hui)转工(gong)作台和数控(kong)回(hui)转工(gong)作台,后者能(neng)够实现任意分度,作为B轴与其他轴联动控(kong)制。回(hui)转工(gong)作台配置与否以及如何(he)配置必须以实际需要来确定,以经济、实用为目(mu)的(de)。

(3)自动换刀装(zhuang)置(zhi) (ATC)

ATC的(de)选择主(zhu)要(yao)考(kao)虑换刀(dao)时间(jian)与可靠性(xing)。过分强调换刀(dao)时间(jian)会使(shi)加工(gong)中心的(de)价格大幅度(du)提高并使(shi)故(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)率(lv)上升。据统(tong)计(ji),加工(gong)中心的(de)故(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)中约有50%与ATC有关,因此,在满足使(shi)用要(yao)求的(de)前提下,尽量选用可靠性(xing)高的(de)ATC,以降低故(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)率(lv)和整机成本

(4)必要(yao)的附件、配(pei)套件

选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型时,还(hai)应(ying)注意选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用一(yi)些配套件及附件,尽(jin)量(liang)避免因缺少一(yi)个几万元(yuan)就能购买的附件而影响卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的正常运(yun)(yun)行(xing)。慎重选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)刀(dao)柄和刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)也是保证卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)正常运(yun)(yun)行(xing)的关键,最佳的选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)办(ban)法应(ying)是根据典型零件所需(xu)的品种和数量(liang)来(lai)确定,并在使用中(zhong)(zhong)陆续(xu)添(tian)置。在卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的构成中(zhong)(zhong),排屑装置、防护装置和对(dui)刀(dao)装置 (如刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)预调仪)等(deng)(deng)均是必需(xu)的,对(dui)一(yi)些尽(jin)管不是必需(xu)的配套件,但如果价格不高,对(dui)使用带来(lai)很(hen)多方便,也应(ying)尽(jin)量(liang)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用,如附件铣(xian)头、储刀(dao)料架、运(yun)(yun)刀(dao)具(ju)(ju)车、装卸器等(deng)(deng)。

建议:配(pei)件越(yue)(yue)(yue)高,能实现的功(gong)能越(yue)(yue)(yue)多(duo),但价格也越(yue)(yue)(yue)贵,采购用户需(xu)要根(gen)据加工(gong)需(xu)求酌情选配(pei)。

7卧式加工中心选(xuan)型时还有什么其他需(xu)要(yao)注(zhu)意的?——需(xu)要(yao)注(zhu)意的一些问题

(1)结构(gou)设计

加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)对其床身、立柱、工(gong)作台、主轴以(yi)及刀(dao)库等功能(neng)部(bu)件的(de)结(jie)构设(she)计有着(zhe)很高(gao)(gao)的(de)要(yao)求(qiu),以(yi)达到其高(gao)(gao)强(qiang)度、高(gao)(gao)刚度、高(gao)(gao)抗振性(xing)和稳定(ding)性(xing)的(de)目的(de)。选型时(shi),应特别(bie)注意把(ba)其结(jie)构作为一(yi)项重要(yao)的(de)具体内容来进(jin)行(xing)要(yao)求(qiu)与考虑。

(2)功能与加工的适(shi)应性(xing)

虽然加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心可以进行(xing)钻、扩、铣、镗(tang)、铰、攻螺纹(wen)乃(nai)至(zhi)车(che)削 (如(ru)车(che)铣复合加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心)等(deng)多种加(jia)工(gong),但是(shi)在具体选(xuan)择时,还应根据具体需(xu)要(yao)来(lai)考虑机床的功(gong)能与加(jia)工(gong)是(shi)否相(xiang)适应等(deng)问题。要(yao)注意以下几点:

A、复杂曲(qu)线加工时(shi),要(yao)考(kao)虑CNC是否有所需要(yao)的(de)曲(qu)线插补功能,或(huo)选(xuan)择(ze)什么方式逼近(jin)加工曲(qu)线并保证所要(yao)求的(de)表面粗糙度。三维加工时(shi),要(yao)考(kao)虑选(xuan)择(ze)适(shi)合(he)的(de)刀(dao)具结构,还要(yao)考(kao)虑程序编(bian)(bian)(bian)制能力,如(ru)有必要(yao)则(ze)必须(xu)配备自动编(bian)(bian)(bian)程装置或(huo)后置处理编(bian)(bian)(bian)程装置。

B、需(xu)要(yao)进行螺纹切(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue) (非攻(gong)螺纹方式)时(shi),不仅要(yao)看是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有螺纹切(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)功(gong)能、螺旋线插补功(gong)能和主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)动与进给同步功(gong)能,还要(yao)考虑(lv)机床是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有径向(xiang)进给装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)、是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有主(zhu)轴(zhou)在旋转(zhuan)方向(xiang)上任意角(jiao)度位置(zhi)(zhi)准确定位功(gong)能。否(fou)(fou)则,仅在数控系统中用了螺纹切(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)功(gong)能仍然无法进行螺纹切(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)C、采用金刚铰(jiao)、浮动镗和挤压(ya)加工(gong)等特种加工(gong)时(shi),既要(yao)考虑(lv)适宜的自动换刀的条件(jian)(jian),又要(yao)考虑(lv)选(xuan)择合适的刀具结构和切(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)用量,应尽可能在购买(mai)主(zhu)机时(shi)一并购置(zhi)(zhi)部(bu)分易损部(bu)件(jian)(jian)及其他附件(jian)(jian)等。

D、如果(guo)有应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的规划(hua),或要(yao)进行网(wang)络制造,则(ze)要(yao)注(zhu)意通(tong)信功能(neng),应选择具有RS—232、RS—485甚(shen)至MAP网(wang)络通(tong)信、CAN总(zong)线(xian)等接口的系统(tong)。

(3)运转的(de)可靠(kao)性(xing)

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购(gou)用户在选型时,需要对(dui)卧式加工中心(xin)整体的结构设(she)计(ji)、可(ke)靠性以及价(jia)加工适应性有(you)客观的认识。


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